Intro to HTML CSS: Making webpages
Due to the fact that web pages have different fonts, colored backgrounds, and multiple styles, it was a long, painful, and expensive process to rewrite the code. CSS comprises style rules that are interpreted by the browser and then applied to the corresponding elements in your document. A style rule set consists of a selector and declaration block.
In the Introduction to HTML module, we covered what HTML is and how it is used to mark up documents. Headings will look larger than regular text, paragraphs break onto a new line and have space between them. Links are colored and underlined to distinguish them from the rest of the text. This means you https://deveducation.com/ can do all the styling on a separate file and apply the CSS to any page you want. CSS is easy to learn and understand, but it provides powerful control over the presentation of an HTML document. In this article, we have taken a look at a number of ways in which you can style a document using CSS.
Selecting multiple elements
The interactive editor acts as if the CSS in the first panel is linked to the HTML document, just as we have with our document above. A thistle background color and paragraphs with 20 point, medium blue font will now be applied to this single page. This will link the .html file to your style sheet (in this case, mysitestyle.css), and all of the CSS instructions in that file will then apply to your linked .html pages. For example, headings (h1 elements), sub-headings (h2), sub-sub-headings (h3), etc., are defined structurally using HTML. In print and on the screen, choice of font, size, color and emphasis for these elements is presentational. Pseudo-classes are used in CSS selectors to permit formatting based on information that is not contained in the document tree.
- Styles may be found within a webpage’s HTML file or in a separate document referenced by multiple webpages.
- CSS is not technically a necessity, but you probably wouldn’t want to look at a web page that features only HTML elements as it would look completely bare-boned.
- Simply put, web browsers follow CSS rules to determine how a document should be displayed.
- Change the color code to the color you chose in What will my website look like?.
- The CSS only has a single rule, which uses a span selector.
When you start working with browser DevTools you will be navigating the DOM as you select items in order to see which rules apply. Each element, attribute, and piece of text in the markup language becomes a DOM node in the tree structure. The nodes are defined by their relationship why do we need cascading style sheets to other DOM nodes. Some elements are parents of child nodes, and child nodes have siblings. When a browser displays a document, it must combine the document’s content with its style information. It processes the document in a number of stages, which we’ve listed below.
In addition to HTML, other markup languages support the use of CSS including XHTML, plain XML, SVG, and XUL. Instead of versioning the CSS specification, W3C now periodically takes a snapshot of the latest stable state of the CSS specification and individual modules progress. CSS modules now have version numbers, or levels, such as CSS Color Module Level 5. Many experienced developers would much rather refer to MDN documentation or other tutorials. Nevertheless, it is worth knowing that these specs exist and understanding the relationship between the CSS you are using, the browser support (see below), and the specs. A CSS stylesheet will contain many such rules, written one after the other.